Composition :
Each ml contains
Levoflocin Hemihydrate I.P
Equivalent to Levofloxacin 100mg
Quinolone The quinolones are a family of synthetic broad spectrum antibiotics. The
parent of the group is naldixic acid. The majority of the quinolones in clinical use belong
to the subset of Fluoroquinolones, which have a fluorine atom attached the Central ring
system typically at the 6-position.
Generations :
Quinolones are divided into generations based on their antibacterial spectrum. The
earlier generation agents are in general, more narrow spectrum than the later ones.
1st Generation
cinoxacin, flumequine, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid piromidic acid, pipemidic acid,
resoxacin, enrofloxacin.
2nd Generation
ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, lomefloxacin, nodifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin,
pefloxacin, rufloxacin
3rd Generation
Balofloxacin, gatifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, pazufloxacin,
sparfloxacin, temafloxacin to sufloxacin.
Levofloxacin is a third generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic. It is twice as active as its
isomer ofloxacin.
Levofloxacin is one of the so called respiratory quinolones, which are effective against a
number of Gram – positive & Gram negative bacteria & specifically against the organisms
that cause atypical pneumonia. Because of its broad spectrum action, Levofloxacin is
frequently prescribed empirically for a wide range of infections. (such as pneumonia &
urinary tract infection) before the causal organism is known. Levofloxacin is currently the
only respiratory quinolone approved by the FDA for the treatment of nosocomial
It is twice as active as its isomers of first & second generation quinolons.
It is one of the so called respiratory Quinolon. It is effective against number of Gram-
Negative, Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria & Mycoplasma. It is currently the only
respiratory quinlon approved by the USFDA for the treatment of Pneumonia.
Levofloxacin is rapidly and almost completely absorbed following oral administration
within an hour of dose. Its rapid absorption & wide distribution is evident in the body fluid
& tissues. Peak plasma level is observed in 1 hrs. and drug level above MIC90 in plasma
is maintained for more than 12 hrs. indicative of excellent clinical & bacteriological
efficacy. Peack plasma level of levofloxacin attained is 3.4 μg/ml which is 30 folds higher
then the MIC 0.1 μg/ml of Levofloxacin.
Susceptible Organism
Gram positive bacteria
Enterococcus faecalis
Staphylococcus aureus, s.epidermidis, S. saprophyticus.
Streptococcus pneumoniac (including multi drug resistant strains MDRSP).
Streptococcus pyogenes.
Gram Negative Bacteria
Enterobacter cloacae
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Escherichia Coli
Legionella pneuumophila
Serratia marcescens
Haemophilus influenzac, H. Para-influenzac
Moraxella catarohalis
Proteus mirabilis

Chalamydia pneumonia
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Peptostrepto coccus spp.

Mechanism of Action :
Levofloxacin is the L-isomer of the racemate ofloxacin, a quinolone antimicrobial agent.
Levofloxacin is a bactericidal drugs, activily killing bacteria by inhibiting bacterial DNA
gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication &
transcription. Quinolones can enter cells easily via porins & therefore are often used to
treat intracellular pathogens such as legionella pneumophila & micoplasma pheumonac.
For many Gram – negative bacteria DNA gyrase is the target, where as topoisomerase is
the target for many Gram - positive bacteria.
Pharmacokinetics :
Levofloxacin is rapidly & almost completely absorbed following oral administration, with
peak plasma concentrations achieved within a hour of a dose. It is distributed into body
tissue including the bronchiol mucosa & lungs. Levofloxacin is approximately 30-40%
bound to plasma proteins. It is only metabolized to a small degree to inactivate
metabolites. The elimination half life of Levofloxacin is 6-8 hrs. it is excreted largely
unchanged primarily in urine.

Adverse effects
Serious, rare side effects include: Tendon damage known as quinolone induced
tendonopathy. Levofloxacin crosses the placenta, and fluorquinalones have shown to
cause fetal harm in animals, it is therefore not recommended in pregnant animals.

Fluoroquinolones have had a remarkably safety record. Because these drugs do not alter
the anaeroabic flora of the gastrointestinal tract, there is minimal disruption of the
intestinal bacterial population even when these drugs are administered orally. There have
been no reports of cutaneous drug reaction resulting from fluoroquinolones usage in the

Indications :
Swine: -
Atrophic rhinitis – Swine pneumonia
Mchoplosmal pneumonia – Bacterial disease (URTI)
Enteric disease (scours) of Swine
Swine enzootic pneumonia – Bronchitis
Secondary bacterial infections associated with viral disease like Hog cholera, T.G.E.,
PARS & Swine influenza.

E. Coli infections (Coli bacillosis)
Air sac disease – Chronic respiratory disease
Salmonellosis (Pullorum disease)
Pasturellosis (Fowl Cholera)
Necrotic or Ulcerative enteritis
Clostridium disease – Bronchitis
Fowl typhoid
Secondary bacterial infections associated with viral diseases.
Sheep:- Pneumonia – Acute bacterial sinusitis, - Acute & Chromic bronchitis - Skin
infections, Urinary tract infections - Acute pylonephritis


Dosage :
7.5mg – 10.0 mg per kg body weight or
1Ltr and 500ml HDPE Container
Note :
Levofloxacin 10mg/kg. b.wt. after repeated oral administration at 12 hrs. interval for 14
days in layer birds(30-35 weeks old weighing 1.5-2.0 kg.) was found safe.
Levofloxacin could not be deducted in the tissues (liver & skeletal muscles) at 12 hrs.
after the last administration. Study indicates that. Levofloxacin is well tolerated following
multiple oral administration at 10 mg./kg.body weight in layer and broiler birds.

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